Creative Methods

"Outside the Box" Perspective for Fundamental Issues

Autumn Leaves for Creative Methods - Scientific Analyses of Fundamental Issues


Welcome to Creative Methods, providing scientific analyses for fundamental issues of our world.  Short descriptions of the topics in the site are below.

[Clicking the blue underlined topic title, or the picture, or the “Go” button opens the topic.  Use your browser’s “Back” arrow/button to return here.  Return links and navigation bars at the bottoms of pages facilitate movement throughout the site.]


Global Temperature Increases
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Go to Global Warming

Global Warming will increase temperatures by about 6.9 degrees Fahrenheit, or 3.9 degrees Celsius, during Fossil Fuel Lifetime, until fossil fuel runs out in about 2240.  The earth will experience a Climate Change and will revert to a mild climate similar to that of the Oligocene period of 23 to 34 million years ago.  Polar ice will slowly melt to produce a Sea Level Rise of a few millimeters a year, which will reach 20.0 feet or 6.10 meters above the level of July 1, 2013 by about 2455.  The current national and international policy of "reducing emissions" is futile because it only delays by a few years when the fuel is burned and only slightly alters the path to the eventual outcome.

US Air Quality Gradebook
Go to US Air Quality Gradebook - from
Go to US Air Quality Gradebook - from

US Air Quality Gradebook presents a composite view of air quality based on 21 measures from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  Maps and gradesheets grade US counties from A to F on 10 measures of ambient concentration and on emissions of 11 pollutants.  Each county then receives a composite grade based on these 21 individual measures.  Air quality in neighboring counties also influences a county's map grade.

Go to Creative Methods - español

Spanish is an increasingly important language in the United States.  About 14 percent of the U.S. population now has Hispanic background, and by 2050 that will increase to 29 percent.  Especially in much of southwestern United States, it is a distinct advantage to know both English and Spanish.  This section contains some good references for an introductory Spanish course.

About Us
About perspective for fundamental issues at Creative Methods
Go to Creative Methods - About Us

At Creative Methods, we examine fundamental issues with scientific analyses.  In this endeavor, we employ “outside the box” perspective to provide fresh understanding of our world and ourselves.  Always present is the scientific method, with its high standards of reproducable evidence.


We at Creative Methods hope our site shows you a fresh, scientific perspective on fundamental issues of our world.


Go to Creative Methods Homepage - Scientific Analyses of Fundamental Issues Go to US Air Quality Gradebook - from Go to Creative Methods - About Us Go to Creative Methods - E-mail

Go to US Air Quality Gradebook - Air Quality Maps by US County Go to US Air Quality Gradebook - Air Pollutant Emission Gradesheets Go to US Air Quality Gradebook - Ambient Gradesheets for Criteria Air Pollutants
Go to US Air Quality Gradebook - A Molecular View of Air Quality Go to US Air Quality Gradebook - Air Pollution Sources


Abstract: At Creative Methods, we try to “step outside the box” and look at fundamental issues in our world with new perspective.  Humans are adept at capitalizing on new ideas.  Consider, for example, harnessed electricity, the internal combustion engine, and the integrated circuit.  There is, however, a disinclination to ever revisit the fundamentals, to ask why we are doing things a certain way, or, in general, to ask why.  A child quickly learns that questions such as, “Why is the sky blue?” are irritating to adults and stops asking.  There is pressure to conform to “conventional wisdom” -- to do things the accepted way, and not ask uncomfortable questions.  At Creative Methods, we strive to ask those questions -- to look at things in fresh ways that bring insights into our world and our ideas about it and about ourselves.  Under the issue Air Quality, we present EPA data as maps and gradesheets that grade US counties A to F for 21 EPA measures of air quality.  The topics of air pollution and environmental health are serious issues in the US, and result in pollution health effects including headache, respiratory impairment, neurological impairment, mental impairment, asthma, lung disease, chronic fatigue, immune system dysfunction, premature aging, and reduced longevity.  Environmental science monitors air pollutant emissions, as well as

criteria air pollutant concentrations through ambient monitoring.  The US Air Quality Gradebook (“AirGrades”) grades both emissions and ambient concentrations on maps and gradesheets, and assigns resultant composite scores to US counties.  Air pollutants include carbon monoxide, CO; lead, Pb; nitrogen dioxide, NO2; nitrogen oxides, NOx; volatile organic compounds, VOC; ozone, O3; particulate matter smaller than 10 micrometers in size, PM10; particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in size, PM2.5; ammonia, NH3; sulphur dioxide, SO2; hazardous air pollutants, HAP; diesel emissions; and acrolein.  Air pollution point sources include electric power generating facilities and industrial plants.  Area source emissions include wildfires, forest fires, open burning, permitted burning, structure fires, and fugitive dust.  Mobile sources include highway and off-road vehicles with internal combustion engines such as automobiles, trucks, trains, airplanes, snowmobiles, and all terrain vehicles (ATVs).  The maps, gradesheets, and source sheets demonstrate that clean air is at a premium in the US.  Sites presenting issues on health and the environment related to those presented under the topic Air Grades by Creative Methods at are Scorecard at and the Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, at